Energy-housing crisis

Even before the Russian invasion, many people were already paying too much of their income for housing. Our analysis shows which countries are most endangered by energy poverty, using data on housing overburden rates and the inability to keep houses warm.

We collected data for 2021—the latest available—showing which countries are most burdened, revealing immense disparities among them. Prices were also influenced by the existence of state intervention.

For example, in Bulgaria, 24 percent of households cannot afford to heat their homes. In contrast, in Germany and Austria, this problem is almost non-existent. The same applies to Greece, which has the highest housing overburden rate, with energy costs being part of the overall housing expenses.

For electricity, the highest prices are in Denmark (where 48% of the total price comprises taxes), Belgium, Germany, and Italy. The highest increases in prices between 2021 and 2022 were seen in Czechia, Latvia, and Denmark. The lowest increases were in the Netherlands, possibly due to state subsidies and allowances as well as low taxes. Prices were also low in Hungary and Bulgaria.

Regarding gas prices, the highest are in Sweden (with taxes making up 33% of the total price), Denmark, and the Netherlands (with taxes at 53% of the total price). The lowest prices are in Hungary, Croatia, and Latvia.

Roughly half a million Czech households were already living in energy poverty in the spring of 2021, before the record increase in energy prices. According to Eurostat data, the price of electricity in the Czech Republic rose the most significantly of all the EU-27 countries in the first half of 2021 and 2022.

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